原创

阿里云linux服务器上使用iptables设置安全策略的方法

公司的产品一直运行在云服务器上,从而有幸接触过aws的ec2,盛大的云服务器,最近准备有使用阿里云的弹性计算(云服务器)。前两种云服务器在安全策略这块做的比较好,提供简单明了的配置界面,而且给了默认的安全策略,反观阿里云服务器,安全策略需要自己去配置,甚至centos机器上都没有预装iptables(起码我们申请两台上都没有),算好可以使用yum来安装,安装命令如下:

yum install -y iptables

iptables安装好后就可以来配置规则了。由于作为web服务器来使用,所以对外要开放 80 端口,另外肯定要通过ssh进行服务器管理,22 端口也要对外开放,当然最好是把ssh服务的默认端口改掉,在公网上会有很多人试图破解密码的,如果修改端口,记得要把该端口对外开发,否则连不上就悲剧了。下面提供配置规则的详细说明:

第一步:清空所有规则
 
当Chain INPUT (policy DROP)时执行/sbin/iptables -F后,你将和服务器断开连接
所有在清空所有规则前把policy DROP该为INPUT,防止悲剧发生,小心小心再小心
/sbin/iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT
清空所有规则
/sbin/iptables -F
/sbin/iptables -X
计数器置0
/sbin/iptables -Z
 
第二步:设置规则
 
允许来自于lo接口的数据包,如果没有此规则,你将不能通过127.0.0.1访问本地服务,例如ping 127.0.0.1
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT 
 
开放TCP协议22端口,以便能ssh,如果你是在有固定ip的场所,可以使用 -s 来限定客户端的ip
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
 
开放TCP协议80端口供web服务
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
 
10.241.121.15是另外一台服务器的内网ip,由于之间有通信,接受所有来自10.241.121.15的TCP请求
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 10.241.121.15 -j ACCEPT
 
接受ping
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -m icmp --icmp-type 8 -j ACCEPT
 
这条规则参看:http://www.netingcn.com/iptables-localhost-not-access-internet.html
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
 
屏蔽上述规则以为的所有请求,不可缺少,否则防火墙没有任何过滤的功能
/sbin/iptables -P INPUT DROP
 
可以使用 iptables -L -n 查看规则是否生效

至此防火墙就算配置好,但是这是临时的,当重启iptables或重启机器,上述配置就会被清空,要想永久生效,还需要如下操作:

/etc/init.d/iptables save 
或
service iptables save
 
执行上述命令可以在文件 /etc/sysconfig/iptables 中看到配置

以下提供一个干净的配置脚本:

/sbin/iptables -P INPUT ACCEPT
/sbin/iptables -F
/sbin/iptables -X
/sbin/iptables -Z
 
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -i lo -j ACCEPT 
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 22 -j ACCEPT
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p tcp --dport 80 -j ACCEPT
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p tcp -s 10.241.121.15 -j ACCEPT
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -p icmp -m icmp --icmp-type 8 -j ACCEPT
/sbin/iptables -A INPUT -m state --state ESTABLISHED -j ACCEPT
/sbin/iptables -P INPUT DROP

最后执行 service iptables save ,先确保ssh连接没有问题,防止规则错误,导致无法连上服务器,因为没有save,重启服务器规则都失效,否则就只有去机房才能修改规则了。也可以参考:ubuntu iptables 配置脚本来写一个脚本。

最后再次提醒,在清空规则之前一定要小心,确保Chain INPUT (policy ACCEPT)。

补充阿里云的linux_drop_port.sh

#!/bin/bash
#########################################
#Function: linux drop port
#Usage:  bash linux_drop_port.sh
#Author:  Customer Service Department
#Company:  Alibaba Cloud Computing
#Version:  2.0
#########################################
  
check_os_release()
{
 while true
 do
 os_release=$(grep "Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release"/etc/issue 2>/dev/null)
 os_release_2=$(grep "Red Hat Enterprise Linux Server release"/etc/redhat-release 2>/dev/null)
 if [ "$os_release" ] && [ "$os_release_2" ]
 then
  if echo "$os_release"|grep "release 5" >/dev/null2>&1
  then
  os_release=redhat5
  echo "$os_release"
  elif echo "$os_release"|grep "release 6">/dev/null 2>&1
  then
  os_release=redhat6
  echo "$os_release"
  else
  os_release=""
  echo "$os_release"
  fi
  break
 fi
 os_release=$(grep "Aliyun Linux release" /etc/issue2>/dev/null)
 os_release_2=$(grep "Aliyun Linux release" /etc/aliyun-release2>/dev/null)
 if [ "$os_release" ] && [ "$os_release_2" ]
 then
  if echo "$os_release"|grep "release 5" >/dev/null2>&1
  then
  os_release=aliyun5
  echo "$os_release"
  elif echo "$os_release"|grep "release 6">/dev/null 2>&1
  then
  os_release=aliyun6
  echo "$os_release"
  else
  os_release=""
  echo "$os_release"
  fi
  break
 fi
 os_release=$(grep "CentOS release" /etc/issue 2>/dev/null)
 os_release_2=$(grep "CentOS release" /etc/*release2>/dev/null)
 if [ "$os_release" ] && [ "$os_release_2" ]
 then
  if echo "$os_release"|grep "release 5" >/dev/null2>&1
  then
  os_release=centos5
  echo "$os_release"
  elif echo "$os_release"|grep "release 6">/dev/null 2>&1
  then
  os_release=centos6
  echo "$os_release"
  else
  os_release=""
  echo "$os_release"
  fi
  break
 fi
 os_release=$(grep -i "ubuntu" /etc/issue 2>/dev/null)
 os_release_2=$(grep -i "ubuntu" /etc/lsb-release2>/dev/null)
 if [ "$os_release" ] && [ "$os_release_2" ]
 then
  if echo "$os_release"|grep "Ubuntu 10" >/dev/null2>&1
  then
  os_release=ubuntu10
  echo "$os_release"
  elif echo "$os_release"|grep "Ubuntu 12.04">/dev/null 2>&1
  then
  os_release=ubuntu1204
  echo "$os_release"
  elif echo "$os_release"|grep "Ubuntu 12.10">/dev/null 2>&1
  then
  os_release=ubuntu1210
  echo "$os_release"
  else
  os_release=""
  echo "$os_release"
  fi
  break
 fi
 os_release=$(grep -i "debian" /etc/issue 2>/dev/null)
 os_release_2=$(grep -i "debian" /proc/version 2>/dev/null)
 if [ "$os_release" ] && [ "$os_release_2" ]
 then
  if echo "$os_release"|grep "Linux 6" >/dev/null2>&1
  then
  os_release=debian6
  echo "$os_release"
  else
  os_release=""
  echo "$os_release"
  fi
  break
 fi
 os_release=$(grep "openSUSE" /etc/issue 2>/dev/null)
 os_release_2=$(grep "openSUSE" /etc/*release 2>/dev/null)
 if [ "$os_release" ] && [ "$os_release_2" ]
 then
  if echo "$os_release"|grep"13.1" >/dev/null 2>&1
  then
  os_release=opensuse131
  echo "$os_release"
  else
  os_release=""
  echo "$os_release"
  fi
  break
 fi
 break
 done
}
  
exit_script()
{
 echo -e "\033[1;40;31mInstall $1 error,will exit.\n\033[0m"
 rm-f $LOCKfile
 exit 1
}
  
config_iptables()
{
 iptables -I OUTPUT 1 -p tcp -m multiport --dport21,22,23,25,53,80,135,139,443,445 -j DROP
 iptables -I OUTPUT 2 -p tcp -m multiport --dport 1433,1314,1521,2222,3306,3433,3389,4899,8080,18186-j DROP
 iptables -I OUTPUT 3 -p udp -j DROP
 iptables -nvL
}
  
ubuntu_config_ufw()
{
 ufwdeny out proto tcp to any port 21,22,23,25,53,80,135,139,443,445
 ufwdeny out proto tcp to any port 1433,1314,1521,2222,3306,3433,3389,4899,8080,18186
 ufwdeny out proto udp to any
 ufwstatus
}
  
####################Start###################
#check lock file ,one time only let thescript run one time
LOCKfile=/tmp/.$(basename $0)
if [ -f "$LOCKfile" ]
then
 echo -e "\033[1;40;31mThe script is already exist,please next timeto run this script.\n\033[0m"
 exit
else
 echo -e "\033[40;32mStep 1.No lock file,begin to create lock fileand continue.\n\033[40;37m"
 touch $LOCKfile
fi
  
#check user
if [ $(id -u) != "0" ]
then
 echo -e "\033[1;40;31mError: You must be root to run this script,please use root to execute this script.\n\033[0m"
 rm-f $LOCKfile
 exit 1
fi
  
echo -e "\033[40;32mStep 2.Begen tocheck the OS issue.\n\033[40;37m"
os_release=$(check_os_release)
if [ "X$os_release" =="X" ]
then
 echo -e "\033[1;40;31mThe OS does not identify,So this script isnot executede.\n\033[0m"
 rm-f $LOCKfile
 exit 0
else
 echo -e "\033[40;32mThis OS is $os_release.\n\033[40;37m"
fi
  
echo -e "\033[40;32mStep 3.Begen toconfig firewall.\n\033[40;37m"
case "$os_release" in
redhat5|centos5|redhat6|centos6|aliyun5|aliyun6)
 service iptables start
 config_iptables
 ;;
debian6)
 config_iptables
 ;;
ubuntu10|ubuntu1204|ubuntu1210)
 ufwenable <<EOF
y
EOF
 ubuntu_config_ufw
 ;;
opensuse131)
 config_iptables
 ;;
esac
  
echo -e "\033[40;32mConfig firewallsuccess,this script now exit!\n\033[40;37m"
rm -f $LOCKfile

 

上述文件下载到机器内部直接执行即可。

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